“A smart city on steroids” — what will it be like to live in Saudi Arabia’s $500bn digital oasis, Neom? (JMD quoted on Verdict)
Scarlett is a freelance writer and journalist
future of civilization”, for now exists only in the
mind of Saudi Arabia’s crown prince, Mohammed
unveiled last month – will be built on twin ideals of
technological and ecological innovation, a global mega-hub
and a catalyst for the country’s move to a post-oil era, part
of its so-called Saudi Vision 2030.
— the ability to shape a new international city into whatever
form he chooses.
But are his plans merely a mirage or do they mark a genuine
social and technological progression for Saudi Arabia and the
wider region, and what will life be like for Neom’s citizens of
Plans for Neom’s state-of-the-art technology fall into nine sectors;
energy and water, mobility, biotech, food, advanced
manufacturing, media, entertainment, technological and
digital sciences, and living.
Within these Neom wants to be at the forefront of
developments in gene therapy, genomics, stem cell research,
nanobiology, arid and seawater farming, and bioengineering.
There are designs to make serious advancements in all
industries, bleeding into the very infrastructure of society.
Neom will not only have everything, but it will be the best at
everything – or so we’re told.
Neom is expected to be “a smart city on steroids”, according to
GlobalData tech analyst Josh Hewer.
While cities around the world have begun incorporating smart
elements, due to their creaking infrastructure they are not able
to harness information on the same scale as Neom.
The proposed site will span 10,000 square miles – roughly 33
times the size of New York City and large enough to
accommodate Singapore 37 times.
Another GlobalData tech analyst, Hussein Ahmed, said, Neom
will go further than existing large scale smart cities, and bin
Salman will be able to use them as a blue-print for his vision.
He’s seen the progress of construction in Dubai and Qatar
and all of these similar places. If the lessons are learned
there, then the application can be easier, if it’s done properly.
Hewer is sceptical however that the first section of the city can be
completed by 2025, as planned.
Neom is in line with a future city concept, and it’s a viable
concept, I just don’t think it’s deliverable in a decade.
Saudi Arabia does not take criticism of its plans lightly.
However, if the prince is to be believed, the city itself will be a robot
– it will be “robot number one”, as bin Salman
with artificial intelligence (AI), with the Internet of Things (IoT)”.
Plans for connectivity within Neom go far beyond what is currently
possible in the cloud, AI, and the IoT.
While currently much of people’s daily lives is contained within our
phones, our personal iCloud or computer, these systems are
separate from one another.
In Neom all of this information will exist on a single platform,
storing not simply photos and music but also people’s cars and
According to the prince, Neom will have no supermarkets:
automation will seamlessly deliver things directly to people’s
In this way Neom will be like a living organism, growing with the
information pumped into it by its inhabitants.
The extent of Saudi Arabia’s love of robotics was seen a few weeks
ago when it became the first country to grant citizenship to a robot.
One with the female name, Sophia.
The decision sparked criticism as Sophia enjoys some luxuries that
Saudi women cannot – specifically, going out without a headscarf
and without a male guardian, two things that are currently illegal
for Saudi women.
Valuing robots on a similar — or perhaps greater — level than
people is echoed in proposals to use robots for many public sector
jobs in Neom.
The city will be home to a population of robots that will outnumber
human inhabitants, with jobs ranging from security and logistics, to
caring for the sick and elderly.
Neom is raising questions that were previously the domain of sci-fi
authors – will a robot be able to give the required care and comfort
that today seems far beyond what a machine is capable of?
Plans like these are “symptomatic of a future being built without understanding the practicalities from a service provision point of
view”, according to Hewer.
The use of a robot workforce will also not solve one of Saudi
Arabia’s biggest problems; that of job creation.
James Dorsey, a specialist in Middle Eastern studies at the
Nanyang Technological University in Singapore, told Verdict:
Saudi Arabia is a country where somewhere between 51
percent and 60 percent of the population is under 30”. They
want jobs. Robots don’t create jobs. They take jobs away.
According to the prince however, “it is not Neom’s duty to create
jobs for Saudis. Neom’s duty is to be a world hub.”
With the Kingdom’s apparent urgency to shake off its dependency
on oil, Saudi Arabia seemingly has few plans to find different job
opportunities for its citizens in Neom.
However, with its promise of record breaking theme parks and planned status as a media hub, Neom’s purpose appears be the provision of entertainment rather than job opportunity.
Despite doubts swirling around bin Salman’s plans for the city, Neom heralds social upheaval for the conservative Saudis.
In order to become the global hub bin Salman dreams of, Neom
must have fewer lifestyle restrictions than Saudi Arabia.
Dorsey said: “What all of these reform plans are about is regime
survival”, and the current ultra-conservatism of the Kingdom is
not conducive to attracting foreign investors.
We have already seen steps that were unimaginable just a few
The country has recently lifted a ban on women driving and
earlier this year Saudi Arabia’s King Salman bin Abdulaziz al
Saud allowed women access to education and healthcare
without needing the consent of her guardian.
But these are only small steps towards the radical social shifts
a city such as Neom proposes.
Saudi Arabia’s regular use of the death penalty, its ban on
cinemas and theatres, and the extreme repression of women
that still exists puts it in stark contrast to not only the Western
world but also places such as Qatar and Dubai, which exercise
far more lenient social restraints.
The prince has said that he envisions Neom as a place where a
more moderate form of Islam will be practiced, though there is
no indication of what this will look like – or how he will square
this with the country’s still powerful clergy.
Nevertheless, Middle East specialist at the London School of
Economics, Steffen Hertog, told Verdict these proposals are
“politically entirely feasible … the official religious
establishment is quite unlikely to stand up to [the crown prince],
at least collectively”.
Both are holiday destinations that use up vast amounts of power and
water but attract large amounts of tourism cash and foreign investment.
The comparison to Dubai is inevitable in the creation of a
megacity in the Middle East – though Neom will eventually dwarf
its UAE rival.
Emerging as a major international business and tourist destination
in the late 1980s, over the years Dubai has built itself up into a
glittering metropolis that is home to some of the world’s most lavish
hotels and decadent resorts.
Though bin Salman has said that Neom would work to complement
rather than compete with Dubai, Hertog said:
Unless Neom becomes highly specialized in areas not already
covered by Dubai, some competition would probably be
At present only 11 percent of Dubai’s population are Emirati, with
expats making up the majority of the inhabitants.
The incentive to move to Dubai is, for most, financial rather than
cultural and many pull down double the salaries they can back home.
However, many who are lured by a quick income bump don’t fully
realise the cost of living in Dubai.
Stephanie, a resident of Dubai for the past seven years, told Verdict
“people see a [salary] number and it’s more than what they make at
home, but they don’t realise how expensive living here is. The
cheapest school is around $13,000 a year, per child. When people
see the salary, they don’t know there’s so much more to it.”
The economics of the region suggest prices would be similar in
Neom – and its technological superiority means it could be far higher.
For some, the cost of moving to a conservative Middle East city is
more than the unprecedented price of amenities, with the so-called
dark side of Dubai the subject of intense media scrutiny.
Johann Hari, a writer for the British Independent online newspaper,
many of whom were lured to the city by the promise of high salaries
only to find their passports taken away, their wages lowered, and
their working hours increased.
Their plight is not one that is entirely ignored in Dubai, with
organisations such as Volunteer in UAE, Adopt-a-Camp, or
Stephanie’s own Dubai Mums Helping Hands that works to bring
water and fresh vegetables to the workers’ community.
This situation will in all likelihood replicate itself in Saudi’s city of
the future, Neom.
However, plans for Neom’s development are not yet known – and it
is difficult to predict how exactly the city will emerge from the dunes.