- the fact that Pakistan was founded as a Muslim state rather than a state populated by a majority of Muslims;
- the resulting longstanding intimate relationship; between Pakistan and Saudi Arabia that long before the Afghan jihad against the Soviets in the 1980s led to constitutional amendments against the Ahmadis and every Pakistani applying for a passport being forced to effectively sign an anti-Ahmadi oath;
- the devastating impact of the jihad itself on Pakistan; and
- Pakistan’s use of militant Islamist and jihadist groups to further its geopolitical objectives.
The Globalist's Top Ten Books in 2016: The Turbulent World of Middle East Soccer
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