[cxxx] Ben Blanchard, Chinese admiral visits Iran, wants closer defense cooperation, Reuters, 14 October 2015,
[cxxxi] David P. Goldman, Saudi Arabia stews in policy hell: Spengler, Asia Times, 3 January 2016,
[cxxxii] China Daily, Saudis face dilemma over Islamic militancy, 2 February 2002,
[cxxxiii] Arab News, Uighurs, 24 March 2002
[cxxxiv] Ibid. Harrison
[cxxxv] Bloomberg News, Russia Races Past Saudi Arabia in Tussle for Chinese Oil Market, 21 October 2015,
[cxxxvi] Benoit Faucon Iran Cancels $2.5 Billion Contract with Chinese Oil Company, The Wall Street Journal, 29 April 2014,
[cxxxvii] Charles Clover, Heba Saleh, Najmeh Bozorgmehr and Simeon Kerr, Xi faces diplomatic test on first Middle East visit, Financial Times, 18 January 2016,
[cxxxviii] Agence France Press, First 'Silk Road' train arrives in Tehran from China, 16 February 2016,
[cxxxix] Ibid. Pan Guang
[cxl] Ibid. Garver, pp. 156-158
[cxli] Tian Shaohui, Xi's fruitful Middle East tour highlights China's commitment to building new type of int'l relations, Xinhua, 24 January 2016,
[cxlii] Xi Jingping, Work Together for a Bright Future of China-Arab Relations, China Daily, 22 January 2016,
[cxliii] Shannon Tiezzi (6 June 2014). In South Sudan Conflict, China Tests Its Mediation Skills, The Diplomat,
[cxliv] Xinhua, China announces new proposal on Syria, 31 October 2012,
[cxlv] Xinhua (6 May 2013). Chinese President makes four-point proposal for settlement of Palestinian question
[cxlvi] Amrutha Gayrathi, China Signals Greater Role in Global Affairs but Sticks to Principle of Mutual Non-Interference, Associated Press, 11 September 2012,
[cxlvii] Ibid. Fardella
[cxlviii] Andrew Small (26 March 2015). Chinese Foreign Policy Comes of Age, The New York Times,
[cxlix] Permanent mission of China to the UN at Geneva(Undated). The 10th Conference of Chinese diplomatic envoys stationed abroad held in Beijing,
[cl] Pan Guang, Keynote Speech at International Conference on China in the Middle East, Indiana University and Peking University, Beijing, 17-18 March 2015
[cli] Nodirbek Soliev, Growing Uighur Militancy: Challenges for China, RSIS Commentary, 4 February 2016,
[clii] Ibid. Soliev
[cliii] Ibid. Pan Guang
[cliv] Edward Wong, Taliban and Afghan Peace Officials Have Secret Talks in China, The New York Times, 26 May 2015,
[clv] Li Jing, China stands by Afghanistan, China daily, 28 September 2015,
[clvi] Foreign Ministry of the People’s Republic of China, Foreign Minister Wang Yi arrived in Kabul to begin a visit to Afghanistan, 22 February 2014,
[clvii] Ibid. Harrison
[clviii] Ahmed Rashid, Why Pakistan is Sinking, The New York Review of Books, 2 April 2015,
[clix] Ibid. Small

[clx] Iftekhar Ahmed Chowdhury, Pakistan in China's Eyes: Pawn, Pivot or a Pointer to its World View, Institute of South Asian Studies, 2015,'s_Eyes_06052015003608.pdf
[clxi] Ibid. Fardelli
[clxii] Qiu Yongzheng Turkey’s ambiguous policies help terrorists join IS jihadist group: analyst, Global Times, 15 December 2014,
[clxv] Jonathan Kaiman, China arrests 10 Turkish nationals on suspicion of aiding terror suspects, The Guardian, 14 January 2015,
[clxvi] The Associated Press, China says Muslim Uighurs have joined ISIS, Haaretz, 11 March 2015,
[clxvii] Ibid. Qiu Yongzheng
[clxix] Ibid. Heavy
[clxx] Aaron Y. Zelin, New nashīd from The Islamic State: ‘Mujāhid,’ Jihadology, 2 December 2015,
[clxxi] Stephen Chen, ‘Islamic State hackers’ attack top tier Chinese university’s website urging holy war, South China Morning Post, 18 January 2016,
[clxxii] Lin Meilian, Xinjiang Terrorists Finding Training, Support in Syria, Turkey, Global Times, 1 July 2013,
[clxxiii] / John Hall. 2015. Meet the Peshmerga's International Brigade: From IT workers to ex-soldiers, the men from the West teaming up with Kurdish forces to fight ISIS, The Daily Mail, April 21,
[clxxiv] Information Office of State Council, "East Turkistan" Terrorist Forces Cannot Get Away with Impunity, 21 January 2002,
[clxxv] Ibid. Guancha / John Hall
[clxxvi] Ibid Guancha / John Hall
[clxxvii] Yitzhak Shichor, Ethno-Diplomacy: The Uyghur Hitch in Sino-Turkish Relations, Policy Studies, No. 53, East-West Center, 2009,
[clxxviii] Hodong Kim, Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004, Kindle edition
[clxxix] Eastern Turkestan Information Bulletin, Istanbul Names Park for Isa Yusuf Alptekin, Vol. 5 No. 4 (August 1995),
[clxxx] Ibid. Shichor
[clxxxi] Michael Clarke, Uyghur Militants in Syria: The Turkish Connection, The Jamestown Foundation, Terrorism Monitor, Vol.14:3, 4 February 2016,
[clxxxii] Selcuk Colakoglu, Dynamics of Sino–Turkish Relations: A Turkish Perspective, East Asia, Vol. 32:1, p 7-23
[clxxxiii] China Daily, Zhu in Turkey, Vows to Fight Terrorism, 17 April 2002,
[clxxxiv] Ibid. Shichor
[clxxxv] Lucy Hornby and Piotr Zalewski, China accuses Turkey of aiding Uighurs, Financial Times 12 July 2015,
[clxxxvi] Burhan Dogus Ayparlar, Turkish PM Erdogan: 'Incidents at Xinjiang are almost Genocide,' Journal of Turkish Weekly, 11 July 2009,
[clxxxviii] Ben Blanchard, China passes controversial counter-terrorism law, Reuters, 28 December 2015,
[clxxxix] Cui Jia, New anti-terror security guidelines made public, China Daily USA, 17 December 2015,
[cxc] Ibid. Pan Guang
[cxci] China Radio International English, Satellite Spots Cross-border Tunnels, 25 August 2014,
[cxcii] Eli Jacobs, China’s Underground “Great Wall”: A Success for Nuclear Primacy, Center for International and Strategic Studies, 25 October 2011,
[cxciii] Ibid. Ma Xiaolin
[cxciv] Zachary Keck, China Doubles Down on Iraqi Oil Gamble, The Diplomat, 18 October 2013, / Bree Feng and Edward Wong. China Keeps a Close Eye on Oil Interests in Iraq, The New York Times, 17 June 2014,
[cxcv] Pu Zhendong, Rise of ISIS surpasses other Middle East chaos, China Daily USA, 4 September 2014,
[cxcvi] Abu Bakr Al-Husayni Al-Baghdadi (4 July 2014). A Message to the Mujahidin and the Ummah in the Month of Ramadan, Al Hayat Media Center,
[cxcvii] Don Mackay, ISIS Militants in Iraq Proclaim New Islamic State and Pose Threat to ‘All Countries, Mirror, 30 June 2014, /
[cxcix] Christina Y. Lin, ISIS Caliphate Meets China’s Silk Road Economic Belt, IDC Herzliya Rubin Center, 15 February 2015,
[cc] Ucan, China Losing Battle Against Extremist Islamic Teachings, Says Muslim Official, Eurasia Review, 30 March 2015,
[cci] Abdul-Reda Assiri, Kuwait's Dinar Diplomacy: The Role of Donor-Mediator, Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 14:3, p.24-32
[ccii] Ilham Tohti, Present-Day Ethnic Problems in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region: Overview and Recommendations, China Change, 22 April 2015,
[cciii] Stratfor, China's Uighur Militants Make a Strategic Shift, 2 March 2014,
[cciv] Zhang Xiaodong, China’s Interests in the Middle East: Present and Future, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 30 April 2009,
[ccv] Ibid. Dorsey
[ccvi] Jiang Xudong, China’s Role, Operation Progress and Strength Limitation since Iraq Reconstruction: An Analysis Based on the Swot Model, International Conference on China in the Middle East, Indiana University and Peking University, Beijing, 17-18 March 2015


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