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Friday, March 18, 2016

CHINA AND THE MIDDLE EAST: VENTURING INTO THE MAELSTROM (Part 3)



[i] United States Energy Information Agency (EIA), China, 14 May 2015, http://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis_includes/countries_long/China/china.pdf
[ii] Bilahari Kausikan, US-China Relations: Groping towards a New Modus Vivendi, Institute of Policy Studies, S. R. Nathan Lecture, 25 February 2016
[iii] Davis Shambaugh, China Goes Global: The Partial Power, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, Kindle edition
[iv] Wu Jianmin, One Belt and One Road, Asia’s Stability and Prosperity, RSIS Distinguished Public Lecture, 12 March 2015
[v] U.S. Energy Information Agency, China, 15 May 2015, https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.cfm?iso=CHN
[vi] Martin Harrison, Relations between the Gulf Oil Monarchies and the People’s Republic of China, 1971-2005, Lancaster University, Unpublished PhD thesis, 2006
[vii] James M. Dorsey, China and the Middle East: Embarking on a Strategic Approach, RSIS Commentary, 16 September 2014, https://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/CO14183.pdf
[viii] Kathy Gill, Barack Obama Acceptance Speech - DNC - 28 August 2008, About.com, 28 August 2008, http://uspolitics.about.com/od/speeches/a/obama_accept.htm
[ix] Cheng Dongxiao et al, Building up a Cooperative & Co-progressive New Asia: China’s Asia Strategy towards 2020, Shanghai: Shanghai Institutes for International Studies, 2012,
[x] Institute. For Energy Research, U.S. Overtakes Saudi Arabia and Russia as Largest Oil Producer, 10 July 2014, http://instituteforenergyresearch.org/analysis/u-s-overtakes-saudi-arabia-russia-worlds-biggest-oil-producer/ International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2012. http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/English.pdf
[xi] Ibid. Wu Jianmin
[xii] U.S. Department of State, U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue Outcomes of the Strategic Track, 14 July 2014, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2014/07/229239.htm
[xiii] Sara Hamdan, UAE Becomes a Magnet for Chinese Students, The New York Times, 15 September 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/16/world/middleeast/uae-becomes-a-magnet-for-chinese-students.html?pagewanted=2&_r=0
[xiv] Rania Moussly, Chinese Language, Culture Classes on Offer in Dubai, Gulf News, 22 August 2010, http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/education/chinese-language-culture-classes-on-offer-in-dubai-1.671263
[xv] IRIB World Service, China: Ningxia aims to become capital of Halal food processing, 18 September 2013, http://english.irib.ir/news/world/asia/item/164325-china-ningxia-aims-to-become-capital-of-halal-food-processing
[xvi] Sean Foley, Seek Knowledge Even If It Takes You to China (Via Washington): America, China, and Saudi Arabia in the Twenty-First Century, Presentation at China in the Middle East Conference, Beijing, 18 March 2015
[xvii] Ibid. Jian Junbo
[xviii] Xinhua, Full text of China's Arab Policy Paper, 13 January 2016, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2016-01/13/c_135006619.htm
[xix] Ma. Xiaolin, #38 Event Report: Islamic Caliphate in Iraq: What Can China Do? thinkINchina, 22 October 2014, http://www.thinkinchina.asia/38-event-report/
[xx] US Energy Information Administration China, 4 February 2014, http://www.eia.gov/countries/analysisbriefs/China/china.pdf
[xxi] International Energy Agency, IEA releases Oil Market Report for February, 13 February 2014, https://www.iea.org/newsroomandevents/news/2014/february/ieareleasesoilmarketreportforfebruary.html
[xxii] James M. Dorsey, China & the Middle East: Tilting Towards Iran? RSIS Commentary, 28 January 2016, http://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/CO16020.pdf
[xxiii] Michael Meidan, Amrita Sen and Robert Campbell, China: ‘the new normal,’ The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, February 2015, http://www.oxfordenergy.org/wpcms/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/China-the-new-normal.pdf
[xxiv] Keith Johnson, China Tops U.S. as Biggest Oil Importer, Foreign Policy, 11 May 2015, https://foreignpolicy.com/2015/05/11/china-tops-u-s-as-biggest-oil-importer-middle-east-opec-sloc/
[xxv] Kenneth Rapozza, Internationalization of China Currency Continues with Qatar Deal, Forbes, 4 November 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2014/11/04/internationalization-of-china-currency-continues-with-qatar-deal/
[xxvi] Emma Scott, China’s Silk Road: A Foothold in the Suez Canal, but Looking to Israel, China Brief 14, no. 19, 2014, http://www.ccs.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/CCS_Commentary_Suez_and_China_ES_2014.pdf
[xxvii] Ibid. Scott
[xxviii] Avi Bar-Eli, Chinese company to run new Haifa port, Haaretz, 24 March 2015, http://www.haaretz.com/business/.premium-1.648483
[xxix] Rami Amichai and Ari Rabinovitc, Chinese firm starts work on new Ashdod port, as Haifa workers strike, 28 October 2014, Haaretz, http://www.haaretz.com/news/national/1.623216
[xxx] David Barnett (7 September 2013). Al Furqan Brigades claim 2 attacks on ships in Suez Canal, threaten more, The Long War journal, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2013/09/al_furqan_brigades_claim_two_a.php
[xxxi] Dubi Ben-Gedalyahu (29 April 2015). China to be Israel’s biggest infrastructure partner, Globes, http://www.globes.co.il/en/article-china-becoming-israels-biggest-infrastructure-partner-1001031690
[xxxii] Najmeh Bozorgmehr, China overtakes EU to become Tehran's largest trading ally, The Irish Times, 9 February 2010, https://www.irishtimes.com/news/china-overtakes-eu-to-become-tehran-s-largest-trading-ally-1.619509
[xxxiii] Saeed Shah, China to Build Pipeline from Iran to Pakistan, The Wall Street Journal, 9 April 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/china-to-build-pipeline-from-iran-to-pakistan-1428515277
[xxxiv] Saeed Shah and Jeremy PageChina Readies $46 Billion for Pakistan Trade Route, The Wall Street Journal, 16 April 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/china-to-unveil-billions-of-dollars-in-pakistan-investment-1429214705
[xxxv] Ibid. Sun Degang Sun
[xxxvi] Ibid. Wu Jianmin
[xxxvii] Ibid. Wu Jianmin
[xxxviii] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Xi Jinping Attends Opening Ceremony of Sixth Ministerial Conference of China-Arab States Cooperation Forum and Delivers Important Speech Stressing to Promote Silk Road Spirit and Deepen China-Arab Cooperation, 5 June 2014, http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/zxxx_662805/t1163554.shtml
[xxxix] Tim Niblock, The Gulf, the West and Asia: Shifts in the Gulf’s Global Relations, Lecture at 4th International Forum on Asia and the Middle East: International Conference on Great Powers and the Middle East Political & Social Transformation, Shanghai, 10 September 2014
[xl] Christina Y. Lin, China’s Strategic Shift Toward the Region of the Four Seas: The Middle Kingdom Arrives in the Middle East, IDC Herzliya Rubin Center for Research in International Affairs, 2013, http://www.rubincenter.org/2013/03/chinas-strategic-shift-toward-the-region-of-the-four-seas-the-middle-kingdom-arrives-in-the-middle-east/
[xli] ASDA’A Burson-Marsteller, 7th Annual ASDA’A Burson-Marsteller Arab Youth Survey, 2015http://www.arabyouthsurvey.com/
[xlii] Ibid. ASDA’A Burson-Marsteller
[xliii] Ibid. ASDA’A Burson-Marsteller
[xliv] Yun Sun, March West: China’s Response to the U.S. Rebalancing, Brookings, 31 January 2013. http://www.brookings.edu/blogs/up-front/posts/2013/01/31-china-us-sun
[xlv] Mojtaba Mahdavi, Is China Becoming a New Hegemony in the Middle East? International Conference on China in the Middle East, Indiana University and Peking University, Beijing, 17-18 March 2015
[xlvi] Christina Lin, The New Silk Road, China’s Energy Strategy in the Greater Middle East, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Focus #109, April 2011, http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/uploads/Documents/pubs/PolicyFocus109.pdf
[xlvii] Irene Chan, China’s Maritime Silk Road: Emerging Domestic Debates, RSIS Commentaries, No. 053/2015, 13 March 2015, http://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/CO15053.pdf
[xlviii] Linda Jakobsen and Dean Knox (2010). New Foreign Policy Actors in China, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, http://books.sipri.org/files/PP/SIPRIPP26.pdf
[xlix] Chaoling Feng, Embracing Interdependence: The Dynamics of China and the Middle East, Brookings Doha Center, 2015, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2015/04/28-middle-east-china-feng/en-embracing-interdependence-pdf.pdf
[l] Ash-Sharq Al-Awsat, Saudi–Chinese trade increases by 14 percent, 20 November 2013, http://english.aawsat.com/2013/11/article55323012/saudi-chinese-trade-increases-by-14-percent
[li] Stig Stenslie and Wang Luyao, China the ‘Next U.S.” in the Middle East? Middle East Institute, National University of Singapore, 2014, https://mei.nus.edu.sg/index.php/web/publications_TMPL/Volume-7-1-China-the-Next-U.S.-in-the-Middle-East
[lii] Naser M. Al-Tamimi, China-Saudi Arabia Relations, 1990-2012: Marriage of Convenience or Strategic Alliance? London: Routledge, 2014, p. 126-143.
[liii] Dania Thafer, After the Financial Crisis: China-Dubai Economic Relations, Middle East-Asia Project (MAP), 15 September 2013, http://www.mei.edu/content/after-financial-crisis-dubai-china-economic-relations
[liv] Chengqiu Wu, Sovereignty, Human Rights, and Responsibility: Changes in China’s Response to International Humanitarian Crises, Journal of Chinese Political Science/Association of Chinese Political Studies Vol. 15:1, pp. 71-97
[lv] Ministry of National Defense Chinese Ambassador to India: New security concepts should be nurtured, 24 April 2009, http://eng.mod.gov.cn/Opinion/2015-04/24/content_4581804.htm
[lvi] Enrico Fardella, China’s Debate on the Middle East and North Africa: A Critical Review, Mediterranean Quarterly, Vol. 26:1, p. 5-25
[lvii] Globalsecurity.org. Deng Xiaoping’s "24-Character Strategyhttp://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/24-character.htm
[lviii] Shaio H. Zerba, China’s Libya Evacuation Operation: A New Diplomatic Imperative: Overseas Citizen Protection, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 23:90, 2014, p. 1093-1112.
[lix] Xinhua. 2012. Full text of Hu Jintao's report at 18th Party Congress, November 17, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/special/18cpcnc/2012-11/17/c_131981259.htm
[lx] Ibid. Wu Jianmen
[lxi] Ibid. Pan Guang
[lxii] Ibid. Duchatel, Braunel, and Hang
[lxiii] Ibid. Pan Guang
[lxiv] Yitzhak Shichor, The Middle East in China’s Foreign Policy, 1949-1977, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977 p. 160-161
[lxv] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, China's Initiation of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence, http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/ziliao_665539/3602_665543/3604_665547/t18053.shtml
[lxvi] Yiyi Chen, Will China Interfere in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict? Middle East Institute, 6 May 2015, http://www.mei.edu/content/map/will-china-interfere-israeli-palestinian-conflict
[lxvii] Ibid. Chen
[lxviii] James. M. Dorsey, China Needs to Change Mideast Foreign Policy, Bloomberg Business, 7 February 2012, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2012-02-07/china-needs-to-change-mideast-foreign-policy-commentary-by-james-dorsey
[lxix] Ibid. Pan Guang
[lxx] Ibid. Fardelli
[lxxi] Jian Junbo, Beijing’s New Overseas Imperative, Asia Times Online, 17 February 2012http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/NB17Ad01.html
[lxxii] Aron Shai, Detachment No Longer Serves Chinese Interests in Middle East,” Global Times, 2 August 2012, http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/724885.shtml
[lxxiii] Ibid. Jian Junbo
[lxxiv] Gareth Evans, Responding to atrocities: the new geopolitics of intervention, SIPRI Yearbook, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 30
[lxxv] Chinese State Council, The Diversified Employment of China’s Armed Forces, Defence White Paper, Beijing, April 2013, http://eng.mod.gov.cn/Database/WhitePapers/
[lxxvi] Mathieu Duchatel, Oliver Braunel, and Zhou Hang, Protecting China’s Overseas Interest: The
Slow Shift Away from Non-interference, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, June 2014, http://books.sipri.org/files/PP/SIPRIPP41.pdf
[lxxvii] Mikhail Barabanov, Vasiliy Kashin and Konstantin Makienko, Shooting Star, China’s Military Machine in the 21st Century, Minneapolis: East View Press, 2012, section 3.1
[lxxviii] Liu Zhongmin, Political Unrest in the Middle East and China’s Response in Sun Sun Degang and Yahia H. Zoubir (eds), Building a New Silk Road: China and the Middle East in the 21st Century, Shanghai: World Affairs Press, 2014, p. 106-125
[lxxix] Zhou Weilie, On the Strategic Relationship between China and the Middle East Islamic Countries in in Sun Sun Degang and Yahia H. Zoubir (eds), Building a New Silk Road: China and the Middle East in the 21st Century, Shanghai: World Affairs Press, 2014, p. 147-177
[lxxx] Pang Zhongying, Through Chinese eyes: Pang Zhongying (part 1), The Interpreter, 22 December 2012, http://www.lowyinterpreter.org/post/2011/12/22/Through-Chinese-eyes-Pang-Zhongying-(part-1).aspx
[lxxxi] Beijing Review, New Direction for China's Diplomacy, 8 March 2012, http://www.bjreview.com.cn/world/txt/2012-03/05/content_439626.htm#
[lxxxii] Ibid. Lin, China’s Strategic Shift
[lxxxiii] Pakistan Defence, China’s Military Railway Transport, 24 June 2010, http://defence.pk/threads/china%C2%92s-military-railway-transport.62935/
[lxxxiv] John McLaughlin, The Great Powers in the New Middle East in John B. Alterman (ed), Rocky Harbours: Taking Stock of the Middle East in 2015, Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2015
[lxxxv] Joseph A. Kéchichian, Saudi Arabia and China: The Security Dimension, Middle East Institute, 9 February 2016, http://www.mei.edu/content/map/saudi-arabia-and-china-security-dimension
[lxxxvi] John Calabrese, Saudi Arabia and China Extend Ties Beyond Oil, China Brief, Vol.5:20, 27 September 2005
[lxxxvii] Zachary Keck, China Secretly Sold Saudi Arabia DF-21 Missiles with CIA Approval, Newsweek, 31 January 2014, http://thediplomat.com/2014/01/china-secretly-sold-saudi-arabia-df-21-missiles-with-cia-approval/
[lxxxviii] Zachary Keck, Saudi Arabia May Buy Pakistani-Chinese Fighter Jets, The Diplomat, 24 January 2014, http://thediplomat.com/2014/01/saudi-arabia-may-buy-pakistani-chinese-fighter-jets/
[lxxxix] Khaled bin Sultan with Patrick Seale, Desert Warrior: A Personal View of the Gulf War by the Joint Forces Commander, New York: HarperCollins, 1995, p. 139
[xc] Xinhua, China Sends 18th Escort to Somali Waters, People’s Daily, 1 August 2014. http://english.people.com.cn/n/2014/0801/c90786-8764152.html
[xci] Sun Degang Sun, China’s Soft Military Presence in the Middle East, Middle East Institute, 11 March 2015, http://www.mei.edu/content/map/china%E2%80%99s-soft-military-presence-middle-east
[xcii] Ibid. Lin, The New Silk Road
[xciii] Frank Sieren, Sieren's China: Military exercises in the Mediterranean, Deutsche Welle, 4 May 2015, http://www.dw.de/sierens-china-military-exercises-in-the-mediterranean/a-18427931
[xciv] J. Michael Cole, China's Navy in the Mediterranean? The Diplomat, 30 July 2012, http://thediplomat.com/2012/07/whys-chinas-navy-in-the-mediterranen/
[xcv] Mohammad El-Sayed Selim, China’s Emerging Role in the Arab World in in Sun Sun Degang and Yahia H. Zoubir (eds), Building a New Silk Road: China and the Middle East in the 21st Century, Shanghai: World Affairs Press, 2014, p. 126-143
[xcvi] Ibid. Duchatel, Braeuner and Hang
[xcvii] The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China, China's Military Strategy, May 2015, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2015-05/26/content_20820628.htm
[xcviii] John Calabrese, Fate of the Dragon in the Year of the Red Fire Monkey: China and the Middle East 2016, Middle East Institute, 3 February 2016, http://www.mei.edu/content/map/fate-dragon-year-monkey-china-and-middle-east-2016
[xcix] Ibid. Nan Li
[c] Jonathan Holslag, Naval visits accustom Mediterranean to new role, Global Times, 1 August 2012, http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/724645.shtml
[ci] Ibid. Fardelli
[cii] Ibid. Sun Degang Sun
[ciii] United Nations Peacekeeping (2015). Troop and police contributorshttp://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/resources/statistics/contributors.shtml
[civ] Ibid. Duchatel, Braunel, and Hang
[cv] Zhou Bo, The String of Pearls and the Maritime Silk Road, China–US Focus, 11 February 2014, 2014http://www.chinausfocus.com/print/?id=35512
[cvi] Al Jazeera, China 'negotiates military base' in Djibouti, 9 May 2015 http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2015/05/150509084913175.html
[cvii] Private communication from an informed source, 26 May 2015
[cviii] Michael. Singh, Risks for China, and U.S., in Beijing’s Growing Involvement in Middle East, The Wall Street Journal, 21 May 2015, http://blogs.wsj.com/washwire/2015/05/20/risks-for-china-and-u-s-in-beijings-growing-involvement-in-middle-east/?mod=WSJ_Politics%20and%20Policy
[cix] Xinhua, Full Text: China's Military Strategy, 26 May 2015, http://en.people.cn/n/2015/0526/c90785-8897779-7.html
[cx] China Defense Mashup, Chinese paper advises PLA Navy to build overseas military bases, 8 January 2013, http://www.china-defense-mashup.com/chinese-paper-advises-pla-navy-to-build-overseas-military-bases.html
[cxi] Nan Li, The Evolution of China's Naval Strategy and Capabilities: From “Near Coast” and “Near Seas” to “Far Seas,” Asian Security, Vol. 5:2, p. 144-169
[cxii] Ibid. Nan Li
[cxiii] Andrew Erickson and Gabe Collins, Near Seas “Anti-Navy” Capabilities, not Nascent Blue Water Fleet Constitute China’s Core Challenge to U.S. and Regional Militaries, China Sign Post, No. 55, 6 March 2012, http://www.andrewerickson.com/2012/03/china-signpost-55-near-seas-anti-navy-capabilities-not-nascent-blue-water-fleet-constitute-chinas-core-challenge-to-us-and-regional-militaries/
[cxiv] Burak Ege Bekdil and Umit Enginsoy, Turkey, China in Exercises, Defense News, 17 October 2010, http://archive.defensenews.com/article/20101017/DEFFEAT04/10170302/Turkey-China-Exercises
[cxv] BGNNews, China declares it won missile defense tender in Turkey, 15 March 2015, http://national.bgnnews.com/chinese-representative-announces-winning-missile-defense-tender-in-turkey-haberi/4414
[cxvi] Altay Atli, A View from Ankara’s Turkey’s Relations with China in a Changing Middle East, Mediterranean Studies, Vol. 26:1, p. 117-136
[cxvii] Ibid. Atli
[cxviii] Ibid. Atli
[cxx] Foundation for Defence of Democracies. Iranian Tools of Oppression and the Companies that Provide Them, July 2011. http://www.defenddemocracy.org/content/uploads/documents/Tools_of_Oppression_Memorandum_-_7.7.20111.pdf 
[cxxi] Tehran Times, Clerics stand up for rights of Uyghur Muslims, 14 July 2009. http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=198757
[cxxii] Scott Harold and Alireza Nader, China and Iran, Economic, Political, and Military Relations, RAND Corporation, 2012, https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2012/RAND_OP351.pdf
[cxxiii] Reuters, China aims to boost military relations with Iran, 5 May 2014, http://uk.reuters.com/article/2014/05/05/uk-china-iran-idUKKBN0DL0DU20140505
[cxxiv] Mark Thompson and James M. Dorsey, Pentagon Pool report, US Department of Defence, 23 July 1987
[cxxv] Jane’s Strategic Weapons Systems, Surrey: Jane’s Information Service, Volume 100-101, 1990
[cxxvi] John W. Garver, China and Iran: Ancient Partners in a Post-Imperial World, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006, p. 182-9
[cxxvii] United Press International, China opens missile plant in Iran, 23 April.2010, http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Security-Industry/2010/04/23/China-opens-missile-plant-in-Iran/82791272037022/
[cxxviii] Michael Mazza, China-Iran Ties: Assessment and Implications for U.S. Policy, American Enterprise Institute, 21 April 2011, http://www.irantracker.org/analysis/michael-mazza-china-iran-ties-assessment-and-implications-us-policy-april-21-2011
[cxxix] Zachary Keck, China Calls Iran a ‘Strategic Partner, The Diplomat, 6 May 2014, http://thediplomat.com/2014/05/china-calls-iran-a-strategic-partner/
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